ICENECDEV enforce and push conventions, Environmental legal instruments and mechanism ratified by Government of Cameroon and African Countries into national plan of action, development programmes which are translated into local actions and contributing to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs)
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and flora (CITES)
The convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna flora (CITES) is an international agreement that aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. CITES affords varying degrees of trade regulation to nearly 35000 species of animals plants.
The Paris Agreement (French: L'accord de Paris) is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gases emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance starting in the year 2020. An agreement on the language of the treaty was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Paris and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. It was opened for signature on 22 April 2016 (Earth Day), and 177 UNFCCC members signed the treaty, 15 of which ratified it. It has not entered into force.
The head of the Paris Conference, France's foreign minister Laurent Fabius, said this "ambitious and balanced" plan is a "historic turning point" in the goal of reducing global warming.
The aim of the convention is described in Article 2, "enhancing the implementation" of the UNFCCC through:
"(a) Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
(b) Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production;
(c) Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development."
Countries furthermore aim to reach "global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible".
Nationally determined contributions and their limits
The contribution that each individual country should make in order to achieve the worldwide goal are determined by all countries individually and called "nationally determined contributions" (NDCs). Article 3 requires them to be "ambitious", "represent a progression over time" and set "with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement". The contributions should be reported every five years and are to be registered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. Each further ambition should be more ambitious than the previous one, known as the principle of 'progression'. Countries can cooperate and pool their nationally determined contributions. The Intended Nationally Determined Contributions pledged during the 2015 Climate Change Conference serve—unless provided otherwise—as the initial Nationally determined contribution.
The level of NDCs set by each country will set that country's targets. However the 'contributions' themselves are not binding as a matter of international law, as they lack the specificity, normative character, or obligatory language necessary to create binding norms. Furthermore, there will be no mechanism to force a country to set a target in their NDC by a specific date and no enforcement if a set target in an NDC is not met. There will be only a "name and shame" system or as János Pásztor, the U.N. assistant secretary-general on climate change, told CBS News (US), a "name and encourage" plan.
The negotiators of the Agreement however stated that the NDCs and the 2°C reduction target were insufficient, instead, a 1.5°C target is required, noting "with concern that the estimated aggregate greenhouse gas emission levels in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the intended nationally determined contributions do not fall within least-cost 2 ̊C scenarios but rather lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030", and recognizing furthermore "that much greater emission reduction efforts will be required in order to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 ̊C by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or to 1.5 ̊C".
African Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA)
Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds
Launch in 2006, world Migratory Bird day is an annually celebrated awareness-raising campaign aiming to inspire the worldwide conservation of both migratory birds and their environment. The campaign is organized by two international Wildlife treaties administered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) – the Convention on the conservation of migratory Species of Wild animals (CMS), and the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (AEWA). World Migratory bird Day is supported by a growing number of partners, including ICENECDEV.
The Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) is an intergovernmental treaty dedicated to the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats across Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, Greenland and the Canadian Archipelago.
Developed under the framework of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and administered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), AEWA brings together countries and the wider international conservation
http://www.unep-aewa.org/ and http://www.cms.int/en/legalinstrument/aewa
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
The Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. There are presently 162 Contracting Parties to the Convention, with 2,040 wetland sites, totaling 193 million hectares, designated for inclusion in the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.
Every three years, representatives of the Contracting Parties meet as the Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP), the policy-making organ of the Convention which adopts decisions (Resolutions and Recommendations) to administer the work of the Convention and improve the way in which the Parties are able to implement its objectives.
About the Convention and Wetlands
Wetlands are vital for human survival. They are among the world’s most productive environments; cradles of biological diversity that provide the water and productivity upon which countless species of plants and animals depend for survival.
Wetlands are indispensable for the countless benefits or “ecosystem services” that they provide humanity, ranging from freshwater supply, food and building materials, and biodiversity, to flood control, groundwater recharge, and climate change mitigation.
Yet study after study demonstrates that wetland area and quality continue to decline in most regions of the world; 64% of the world’s wetlands have disappeared in the last century. As a result, the ecosystem services that wetlands provide to people are compromised.
Managing wetlands is a global challenge, and the Convention’s 169 Contracting Parties recognize the value of having one international treaty dedicated to a single ecosystem. By setting international standards for wetland conservation and providing a forum for discussing global wetland issues, the Convention enables Contracting Parties to share information on wetlands and address issues together.
The Convention uses a broad definition of wetlands. It includes all lakes and rivers, underground aquifers, swamps and marshes, wet grasslands, peatlands, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, mangroves and other coastal areas, coral reefs, and all human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs and salt pans.
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, with seven targets and four priorities for action.
It was endorsed by the UN General Assembly following the 2015 Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR).
The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders. It aims for the following outcome:
The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries.
The Sendai Framework is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. It is the outcome of stakeholder consultations initiated in March 2012 and inter-governmental negotiations held from July 2014 to March 2015, which were supported by the UNISDR upon the request of the UN General Assembly.
UNISDR has been tasked to support the implementation, follow-up and review of the Sendai Framework.
The Seven Global Targets
(a) Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
(b) Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
(c) Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.
(d) Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
(e) Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
(f) Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.
(g) Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.
he Four Priorities for Action
Priority 1. Understanding disaster risk
Disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge can be used for risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response.
Priority 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
Disaster risk governance at the national, regional and global levels is very important for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, and rehabilitation. It fosters collaboration and partnership.
Priority 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, as well as the environment.
Priority 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
The growth of disaster risk means there is a need to strengthen disaster preparedness for response, take action in anticipation of events, and ensure capacities are in place for effective response and recovery at all levels. The recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phase is a critical opportunity to build back better, including through integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures.
Implementation guides for the Sendai Framework
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction charts the global course over the next 15 years. During the consultations and negotiations that led to its finalization, strong calls were made to develop practical guidance to support implementation, ensure engagement and ownership of action by all stakeholders, and strengthen accountability in disaster risk reduction.
Paragraph 48 (c) of the Sendai Framework calls upon “the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), in particular, to support the implementation, follow-up and review of this framework through […] generating evidence-based and practical guidance for implementation in close collaboration with States, and through mobilization of experts; reinforcing a culture of prevention in relevant stakeholders […]”. In order to support the process, a number of targeted Sendai Framework implementation guides shall be developed.
Basel Rotterdam and Stockholm Convention
The text of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on 22 March 1989 and entered into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, formal confirmation, approval or accession by a country to the Convention, 5 May 1992.
The original Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of the Basel Convention are equally authentic. They are deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations, at the United Nations Treaty Section in New York.
Additional Annexes and Amendment
In 1995, the Amendment to the Basel Convention (“the Ban Amendment”) was adopted by decision III/1 of the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties. The Ban Amendment provides for the prohibition by each Party included in the proposed new Annex VII to the Convention (Parties and other States which are members of the OECD, EC, Liechtenstein) of:
- all transboundary movements to States not included in Annex VII of hazardous wastes covered by the Convention that are intended for final disposal, and
- all transboundary movements to States not included in Annex VII tof hazardous wastes covered by paragraph 1 (a) of Article 1 of the Convention that are destined for reuse, recycling or recovery operations.
This decision III/1 added a paragraph in the preamble; inserted an Article 4A; and added the Annex VII.
In 1998, Annexes VIII and IX were added to the Convention by the fourth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, to provide further elaboration as to the wastes regulated by the Convention as listed in Annexes I and III. Since then, the Conference of the Parties has adopted various changes to these Annexes VIII and IX.
Basel Convention on the Tran boundary
Movements of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal,
The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants was adopted on 22 May 2001 in Stockholm, Sweden. The Convention entered into force on 17 May 2004.
Since then, it has been amended by the Conference of the Parties, at several meetings:
1) At its first meeting held in Punta del Este, Uruguay, from 2 to 6 May 2005, the Conference of the Parties adopted decision SC-1/2, in which it established the arbitration and conciliation procedures, as required in Article 18 of the Convention, to govern the settlement of disputes between Parties. The procedures are set out in Annex G, which entered into force on 27 March 2007 (Depositary notification reference: C.N.1017.2007.TREATIES-14, English, French).
Stockholm Convention Organic Pollutants (POPs)
The text of the Rotterdam Convention was adopted on 10 September 1998 by a Conference of Plenipotentiaries in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The Convention entered into force on 24 February 2004.
The objectives of the Convention are:
- to promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm;
- to contribute to the environmentally sound use of those hazardous chemicals, by facilitating information exchange about their characteristics, by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to Parties.
The Convention creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure. It built on the voluntary PIC procedure, initiated by UNEP and FAO in 1989 and ceased on 24 February 2006.
Rotterdam Convention on the prior informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemical and pesticides in the International Trade